What is Thrombocytopenia? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

Platelets (or thrombocytes) are cells that help blood clot, and thrombocytopenia is a disease in which the number of platelets in the blood is insufficient. The cause of this disease may be due to one’s own disease, or it may be due to drugs. Patients suffering from thrombocytopenia may experience some mild symptoms. Only in a few cases, when the platelet count is too low, it will cause life-threatening complications. Internal bleeding.

How common is thrombocytopenia?

People of any age can experience thrombocytopenia, talk to your doctor about how to reduce your risk

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia, depending on the number of platelets in the blood, may include:

  1. Bruises
  2. Tired
  3. Urticaria
  4. Heavy menstrual flow
  5. Rectal bleeding.
  6. Nosebleeds or bleeding gums
  7. The wound still cannot stop bleeding after being injured for a long time
  8. If the condition is severe, there will be internal bleeding, bloody stools, hematuria, or dark-colored vomitus.

When should you see a doctor?

If you experience the above symptoms, or other suspicious symptoms not listed in the above paragraph, and if you have any questions, please consult your physician. Everyone’s body is different, and when you have any questions, consulting a physician is always the best option.

  1. Bone marrow problems: Bone marrow problems make it difficult for the body to produce platelets. Causes of bone problems include leukemia, anemia, chemotherapy, cirrhosis, or lack of vitamin B12, folate and iron.
  2. Platelet obstruction: This may be due to other diseases affecting the spleen, which loses its ability to help the blood fight harmful substances such as infections. In this case, the enlarged spleen stores too many platelets, reducing the number of platelets in the blood.
  3. Platelets are broken down: Platelets are sometimes destroyed due to special physical conditions, such as:
    • Pregnancy: But it will recover after giving birth.
    • Immune thrombocytopenia: a disorder of immune function.
    • Blood infection: Bacteria can affect blood vessels and cause the destruction of platelets.
    • Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP): This rare symptom causes the body to continuously clot the blood and consume a lot of platelets.
  4. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: Also a rare disease that occurs after infection with E. coli.
  5. Drugs: Some drugs, such as heparin or sulfur-containing antibiotics, can affect the immune system and reduce the number of platelets.

Risk factors for thrombocytopenia

There are many risk factors for thrombocytopenia, including:

  1. Cancer complicated by aplastic anemia (Aplastic anemia) or other immune system diseases.
  2. Exposure to toxic chemicals.
  3. Side effects of certain medications.
  4. Viral infection.
  5. Genetics.

Diagnosis and treatment of thrombocytopenia

The following information is not a medical diagnosis. For further information, please feel free to consult your physician.

  1. How to Diagnose Thrombocytopenia
  2. The doctor may ask the patient about his or her family medical history, as well as other information about his or her own health.
  3. The doctor will draw blood and check for symptoms of thrombocytopenia, such as bruising or hives. During a blood test, the doctor will check the patient’s complete cell count (CBC) and platelet count.
  4. The doctor may also perform a blood clotting test to confirm how long it takes for the blood to clot, as well as any factors that may affect blood clotting.
  5. If the patient has an enlarged spleen, the doctor will also use ultrasound to check it.
  6. If the doctor suspects that there is a problem with the patient’s bone marrow, he or she may perform a bone marrow biopsy or bone aspiration biopsy.

How to Treat Thrombocytopenia

Depending on the cause, treatment will vary. If it is due to a medical condition such as a disease, the doctor will improve it accordingly. If thrombocytopenia is severe, your doctor may take the following measures:

  1. Blood transfusion.
  2. Ask the patient to take immunosuppressants or corticoids that block platelet antibodies.
  3. Spleen removal surgery.

Life adjustment and home therapy for thrombocytopenia

The following methods can help improve thrombocytopenia:

  1. Try to avoid injuries.
  2. Limit alcohol consumption.
  3. When using over-the-counter medicines, please be careful to prevent side effects. If you have any questions, please consult your doctor.

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