Epilepsy (Seizure) is a chronic disease of the brain that affects people of all ages. It is the fourth most common neurological disease after migraine, stroke, and Alzheimer’s disease. Systemic disease. There are many causes of epilepsy, including any disease, brain injury, or abnormal brain development that blocks the normal activity patterns of neurons. Here is information about the causes of epilepsy.
Genetic abnormalities are one of the most important factors that cause epilepsy. In some cases, genes may cause epilepsy even in the absence of a related family history. In other cases, epilepsy occurs in patients with a related family history, suggesting that genes may influence the likelihood of epilepsy. In addition, many people with epilepsy have genes that are abnormally active and have increased drug-resistant versions of the gene, and these people may develop new abnormalities or mutations in epilepsy-related genes.
When genetic abnormalities occur in genes that control neuronal migration, it is very dangerous to the development of the patient’s brain. Because genetic abnormalities can lead to misplacement of neurons or dysplasia. This explains why anticonvulsant drugs don’t work for some people.
Doctors believe that some patients with epilepsy have high concentrations of excitatory neurotransmitters, which increase neuronal activity. In contrast, other patients have abnormally low concentrations of inhibitory neurotransmitters, which increases the activity of neurons in the brain and neuronal activity decreases. Both conditions can lead to excessive neuronal activity, causing epilepsy.
In many cases, epilepsy occurs because of brain injuries caused by other diseases, which alter the normal functioning of the brain, such as reducing the supply of oxygen to brain cells. In addition, diseases and behaviors that deplete oxygen in the brain, such as brain tumors, alcoholism, and Alzheimer’s disease, may also cause epilepsy. Meningitis, AIDS, viral encephalitis and other diseases, as well as neurocysticercosis, a parasitic infection of the brain, can also cause epilepsy. After successful treatment of these conditions, seizures may stop.
In addition, epilepsy is associated with a variety of developmental and metabolic disorders, including Cerebral palsy, Neurofibromatosis, Pyruvate dependency, and nodules. Tuberous sclerosis, acquired epileptic aphasia or Landau-Kleffner syndrome, autism, etc. Epilepsy is just one of the symptoms found in people with the above conditions.
Other factors that can cause seizures
- Alcohol withdrawal.
- Being bitten.
- Being stung.
- Brain infections such as meningitis, encephalitis, and neurocysticercosis.
- Brain injury caused by prenatal or perinatal period, such as hypoxia or trauma during birth, low birth weight, etc.
- A congenital abnormality or genetic condition associated with brain malformation.
- Drug abuse.
- Drug withdrawal.
- Electrolyte imbalance.
- Electric shock.
- Serious head injury.
- Kidney or liver failure.
- Low blood glucose concentrations.
- Stroke can limit the amount of oxygen in the brain, thus inadvertently creating abnormal neural connections.
In addition, causes of epileptic seizures include exposure to lead, carbon monoxide, drugs, and overdose of antidepressants. Lack of sleep, stress, or hormonal changes during menstruation may also trigger seizures, as may smoking and alcohol consumption. Moreover, nicotine in cigarettes acts on the receptors of the excitatory neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain, which can also increase the firing frequency of neurons and cause epilepsy.