The glucose in the blood is called blood sugar. The blood carries glucose to all cells of the human body to provide the energy needed by the body. However, glucose requires the help of insulin (Insulin) to effectively provide cellular energy. When insulin is lacking or incompetent in our body, it will cause excessive blood sugar, further leading to other serious problems such as diabetes.
What is the normal value of blood sugar? How do you read blood sugar levels?
The health examination report will have blood sugar values, which are used to detect a person’s blood sugar status and diagnose diabetes.
Generally speaking, if there is no red letter, you don’t need to worry too much. However, I believe many people will still be concerned about whether their blood sugar status is normal and whether they have diabetes. However, there are too many unfamiliar names in Chinese and English on the blood sugar test report. If there is no explanation from medical personnel, It’s really hard to understand. The following will introduce you to the items and normal values of blood glucose testing and analysis, so that you can understand your own blood glucose test report.
The above chart organizes the three most common blood sugar indicators, which are roughly divided into 4 ranges:
- Low: Blood sugar level is low, you may need to pay attention to hypoglycemia.
- Normal: Blood sugar levels are normal.
- Early stage: blood sugar is high and enters the prediabetes stage.
- Diabetes: This is the diagnostic standard for diabetes, and it is recommended to seek medical diagnosis and treatment.
What is the normal value of blood sugar?
Pre-meal blood sugar (Glucose AC, mg/dL): normal value 70~99mg/dL or 4-6 mmol/L
Measures the glucose content in blood sugar on an empty stomach. Under normal circumstances, the body breaks down starchy foods into glucose. Due to abnormal secretion of insulin in patients with diabetes, the blood sugar level in the blood is too high. If the patient has pancreatitis, the test value may also increase.
Postprandial blood sugar (Glucose PC): normal value 70~140mg/dL or 4-7.8 mmol/L
Testing blood sugar levels 2 hours after a meal can be used to assist in diagnosing whether you have glucose intolerance or diabetes. If you have pancreatitis, the blood sugar level may increase.
Glycated hemoglobin: normal value 4.2~5.7%
Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. Its main function is to bring oxygen into the tissues and take carbon dioxide away from the tissues so that glucose can attach to hemoglobin. The hemoglobin attached to glucose is called glycated hemoglobin (also known as glycated hemoglobin, Hemoglobin A1C, referred to as HbA1c, A1C), which can be used to evaluate the average blood sugar control status and treatment effect in the past 2 to 3 months.
Glycated albumin: normal value 11~16%
Glycated albumin (GA) can show the status of blood sugar control in the past 2 to 3 weeks and observe short-term blood sugar changes. It is more sensitive than glycated hemoglobin and does not require fasting testing. However, this method of testing is not suitable for patients with diseases that affect protein metabolism, such as kidney disease, thyroid disease, etc.
The data of glycated albumin depends on the reagent and brand, and the data of each country is also different. Unlike glycated hemoglobin, there is no unified standard internationally. If you want to calculate, you can refer to the glycated albumin calculation formula provided by the 2018 Diabetes Clinical Care Guidelines: glycated albumin = (glycated hemoglobin -2.015) * 4.
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test 50g (OGTT 50g): Normal value <140 mg/dL
This is used to screen pregnant mothers for gestational diabetes during pregnancy. Pregnant women need to test their blood sugar level 1 hour after drinking sugar water. If blood sugar is >140 mg/dL, it means they have gestational diabetes. (Additional video on the same scene: Causes, symptoms and prevention of gestational diabetes | High blood sugar in pregnancy harms the health of mother and baby)
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test 75g (OGTT 75g): Normal value <200 mg/dL
First, fast for more than 8 hours, draw a blood test, and draw another blood test 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 90 minutes, and 120 minutes after drinking sugar water.
- 120 minutes after drinking sugar water or at any time point. Diabetes is defined as a blood sugar level >200mg/dL
- 120 minutes after drinking sugar water, the blood sugar value is between 140 and 200 mg/dL, indicating impaired glucose tolerance (Impaired glucose tolerance)
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test 100g (OGTT 100g): Normal value <200 mg/dL
It can be used to diagnose gestational diabetes by taking a blood test and taking another blood test 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 120 minutes, and 180 minutes after drinking sugar water. (If the blood sugar value is >200 mg/dL 120 minutes after drinking sugar water or at any time point, it is diagnosed as gestational diabetes)
How often and when to check blood sugar
If you have diabetes, it’s important to keep your blood sugar within your target range. Your blood sugar may need to be checked several times a day. Even if we do not suffer from diabetes, we may still have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high, so it is recommended to maintain a healthy diet, exercise regularly, and follow the doctor’s instructions and use medications prescribed by the doctor to maintain normal blood sugar.
The following are recommendations for how often to check your blood sugar:
- If blood sugar control is poor or unstable, it is recommended to check 3 to 4 times a day.
- Patients with good blood sugar control can check only 3 to 4 times a week.
- If the blood sugar before three meals is close to normal, further check the blood sugar 2 hours after the meal.
- Every 1 to 2 weeks, measure blood sugar at 3 o’clock in the middle of the night to prevent low blood sugar in the middle of the night without realizing it.
Diet control and sugar-stabilizing products are two-pronged measures to stabilize blood sugar and prevent it from soaring.
The first priority to stabilize blood sugar is to control your diet, including regular and quantified meals, eating more high-fiber foods, and eating less high-sugar, high-calorie or high-fat foods, such as fried foods, refined sugar, desserts, sugary drinks and alcohol, and Maintain a normal schedule and exercise more; in addition, taking sugar-stabilizing products can also be used as an aid to strengthen blood sugar regulation and maintain stable fluctuations in blood sugar levels.
There are many sugar-stabilizing products on the market, and the most popular ingredient in recent years is “bitter melon peptide”. Bitter melon peptide is one of the components of bitter melon. It is composed of a variety of amino acids and is a small molecule protein. Studies have found that bitter melon peptide can stimulate insulin secretion, help regulate blood sugar, delay blood sugar absorption, promote metabolism, and regulate physiological functions.
Most of the bitter melon peptide health foods on the market are extracted and concentrated products. Compared with eating bitter melon directly, it has a higher absorption rate and better body utilization. However, there are hundreds of related products. How should you choose?
You can pay attention to choose the “quantitative” bitter melon peptide health products, and carefully check whether the concentration of bitter melon peptides contained in the extract is marked, so that the actual peptide content consumed can be guaranteed; in addition, the extraction technology, such as Products made with Japan’s patented ConstanGI® supercritical extraction technology retain the maximum active ingredients of bitter melon peptides through a concentration factor of up to 20 times, helping to regulate blood sugar. When people choose, it is recommended to choose compound products that add cinnamon, chromium and zinc. They are all health ingredients that are beneficial to regulating blood sugar, such as the cinnamon extract of the US patent Cinnulin PF® and the US patent chromium, which have patented raw material ingredients. , you will feel more at ease when eating it, and it is more effective in maintaining the normal metabolism of sugars in the body.
After measuring blood sugar, if it is found that the blood sugar is high or fluctuates frequently, in addition to starting to control diet and adjust life, it is also recommended to take sugar-stabilizing products at the same time for early health care and blood sugar control; if you have been diagnosed with diabetes, Please be sure to consult your doctor. Under the doctor’s instruction, you can take sugar-stabilizing products to maintain body functions.