Hypertension has long been regarded as a disease that affects many people, affecting 1 in 4 people and ranking among the top 10 causes of death in the world. Many people think that the causes of high blood pressure are excessive salt intake, poor living habits, and little exercise or drinking water. However, in fact, many diseases can also cause high blood pressure.
This article briefly explains to you what hypertension is, the difference between primary and secondary hypertension, and the four major causes of secondary hypertension.
What is high blood pressure?
Hypertension refers to a continuous increase in systolic blood pressure above 130mmHg and a continuous increase in diastolic blood pressure above 80mmHg. It can be divided into two categories: primary hypertension and secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension accounts for all high blood pressure. 90 to 95% of the cases are hypertension without obvious cause, which may occur at any age; the remaining 5 to 10% of the cases are secondary hypertension, caused by other diseases such as the kidneys, blood vessels, heart or other endocrine systems. caused by disease.
4 major causes of secondary hypertension
1.Kidney related diseases
- Complications of diabetes:
Renal insufficiency is one of the complications of diabetes. Diabetes can damage the filtration system of the kidneys and increase blood pressure.
- Glomerular disease:
The filters in the kidneys are fragile and can swell due to many factors, and when this happens, it can lead to increased blood pressure.
- Polycystic kidney disease:
Another type of kidney disease that can cause high blood pressure, the body’s kidneys can form cysts (Cyst) and lose their normal function.
- Renovascular hypertension:
The arteries connecting the kidneys may become narrowed due to fat deposits or abnormal muscle growth in the artery walls, leading to high blood pressure.
2.Hormone related diseases
- Cushing’s syndrome:
Also known as hypercortisolism, Cushing’s syndrome is a disease caused by excessive secretion of cortisol (Cortisol). Most patients with Cushing’s syndrome will be complicated by high blood pressure.
This type of hypertension is caused by excessive secretion of aldosterone. Hyperaldosteronism causes the retention of water and salt in the body and the loss of potassium, leading to high blood pressure.
Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that grows in the adrenal glands. It stimulates the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. When these two hormones are secreted in large amounts, your blood pressure will rise sharply and develop into long-term hypertension.
- Thyroid disease:
When the thyroid gland does not function properly, producing too much or too little thyroid hormone, it may cause high blood pressure.
The parathyroid gland is responsible for regulating the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. An imbalance of thyroid hormones can cause a surge in calcium levels in the blood, leading to high blood pressure.
Patients with sleep apnea snore repeatedly and loudly, and are prone to stop breathing during sleep, resulting in hypoxia and insufficient oxygen intake in the body, causing the blood vessels to compensatoryly increase blood pressure. At the same time, long-term sleep interruption can also make the body prone to inflammation. reaction, causing other inflammations.
Obese people often have blood circulation problems. The heavier the weight, the higher the pressure exerted on the arteries. Increased heart rate and increased fat deposition can also cause high blood pressure. To treat secondary hypertension, you need to pay attention to other underlying conditions. Once the cause is eliminated, blood pressure can usually be controlled and may even return to normal.