Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial Infarction: Symptoms, Precursors, Causes, Prevention, First Aid

What is myocardial infarction?

Myocardial infarction, also known as a heart attack, refers to the blockage of the coronary arteries leading to the myocardium, which prevents blood from being sent to the myocardium, resulting in hypoxia and damage to the myocardium. In severe cases, it may cause sudden death.

Myocardial infarction and coronary arteries

To understand how myocardial infarction occurs, we must first talk about the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart—the coronary arteries.

Not only does the heart need to pump blood throughout the body, it also needs blood itself, and it relies primarily on the coronary arteries to perform this job. However, blood vessels may become narrower and narrower due to the accumulation of fat, cholesterol (Cholesterol) and other substances, causing plaques and affecting blood flow. This is coronary artery disease (or coronary artery disease). Hemorrhagic heart disease).

Sometimes these plaques accumulated in the blood vessels may rupture, attract platelets to aggregate, block the blood vessels and cause blood clots. When the coronary arteries are blocked, blood cannot be transported to the heart, which can cause myocardial infarction.

Symptoms and precursors of myocardial infarction

Typical symptoms of myocardial infarction are chest pain and cold sweat, but the symptoms may be different for everyone. Typical chest pain will move from the center or left side of the chest to the chin and right upper arm, but some patients have atypical chest pain symptoms. , will be manifested by upper abdominal pain, vomiting or syncope. For example, stroke patients have expressed “wheezing”, and diabetic patients have less obvious pain due to sympathetic nerve compression. Therefore, in addition to symptoms, electrocardiogram testing is also required to be accurate.

The following are possible symptoms of myocardial infarction:

  1. Angina pectoris (sense of pressure from heavy objects)
  2. Dizziness, lightheadedness
  3. feel sick and vomit
  4. stomach ache
  5. Difficulty breathing, rapid breathing
  6. sweating, cold sweat
  7. tired
  8. abnormal anxiety
  9. Coughing and wheezing

It is important to note that myocardial infarction does not all happen suddenly like in dramas or movies. Many people may have repeated chest pain, chest compression and other myocardial infarction a few days or even 1 to 2 weeks ago. Signs of infarction.

What to do about myocardial infarction? When should you seek medical help?

Once the signs or symptoms of myocardial infarction mentioned above appear, please seek medical treatment immediately without delay! Because myocardial infarction interrupts blood flow and causes myocardial damage, and the longer the blood vessel is blocked, the greater the damage caused. Without urgent treatment to restore blood flow, permanent damage may be left.

Since you are not sure whether your symptoms will suddenly worsen, please dial 119 to call an ambulance immediately and avoid driving or riding a bicycle to seek medical treatment to avoid endangering the safety of yourself and other passers-by.

Causes of myocardial infarction

The causes of myocardial infarction can be roughly divided into the following three categories:

  1. coronary heart disease
  2. Drug abuse
  3. hypoxia

Risk of myocardial infarction

People who have or have the following diseases or conditions are at higher risk for myocardial infarction:

  1. Men over 45 years old
  2. Women over 55
  3. Family history
  4. lack of exercise
  5. pressure
  6. drug abuse
  7. smokes
  8. hypertension
  9. high cholesterol
  10. Triglyceride
  11. obesity
  12. Diabetes
  13. Preeclampsia
  14. autoimmune diseases
  15. Metabolic syndrome

Types and diagnosis of myocardial infarction

In the event of an acute myocardial infarction, in order to provide the patient with immediate treatment as soon as possible, the doctor may use an electrocardiogram to analyze changes in the heartbeat wave pattern to determine how to diagnose and treat the condition. ECG is divided into the following 3 types:

  1. ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (ST elevation MI, STEMI)
  2. Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (Non-ST elevation MI, referred to as NSTEMI)
  3. Nonspecific ECG changes in myocardial infarction

Since acute myocardial infarction requires emergency treatment, some examinations may not be performed until the patient’s condition is stable, as follows:

  1. blood test
  2. Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG for short)
  3. Ultrasound (Echocardiography)
  4. Chest X-ray
  5. Coronary angiography (commonly known as cardiac catheterization)
  6. Cardiac computed tomography (CT)
  7. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Cardiac MRI)

Complications of myocardial infarction

  1. Arrhythmias
  2. Heart failure
  3. Sudden cardiac arrest
  4. Myocardial rupture

Treatment methods for myocardial infarction

In the case of acute myocardial infarction, aspirin can relieve angina pectoris, and this is usually used in the ambulance as directed by medical staff. Please do not self-medicate, because the dosage that people can buy is not the same as the aspirin for emergency use. If the symptoms are not myocardial infarction, taking medicine without authorization may increase other risks

Medical treatement

  1. aspirin
  2. Nitroglycerin (Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerin)
  3. Thrombolytic
  4. antiplatelet drugs
  5. anticoagulant
  6. Beta-blocker (β-Blocker)
  7. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI for short)
  8. Statin

Surgical treatment

  1. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, also known as balloon dilatation or cardiac catheterization)
  2. Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG)

Rehabilitation treatment

Patients with myocardial infarction may need cardiac rehabilitation after surgery. A rehabilitation plan will be drawn up by a rehabilitation physician to gradually restore cardiopulmonary capacity. Generally speaking, cardiac rehabilitation will start with progressive low-intensity exercise, then plan the exercise method and intensity according to the patient’s condition, and continue to monitor for 3 to 6 months. Finally, the patient will self-monitor and maintain the habit of regular exercise.

First aid methods for myocardial infarction

When a myocardial infarction occurs, first aid can be provided to the patient in the following ways:

  1. Have the patient lie down to reduce movement
  2. call the ambulance

If the patient suffers from shock and faints, be sure to try the following methods immediately and try your best to rescue them before medical staff arrive:

  1. Perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, CPR for short)
  2. Automated External Defibrillator (AED)

Prevention methods of myocardial infarction

Since the main cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis, which is accumulated from long-term daily life patterns, prevention of myocardial infarction is more important than treatment. Many patients who suffer myocardial infarction have coronary heart disease or other heart disease problems. If you want to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, especially for people at high risk of heart disease, please refer to the following 8 prevention methods:

  1. Measurement of blood pressure
  2. Check cholesterol
  3. regular exercise
  4. relieve stress
  5. avoid alcohol
  6. Balanced diet
  7. Good sleep quality
  8. quit smoking


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